The understanding of the mechanisms used for decoding information ensures efficient and correct interpretation of the information if it is taken into consideration during the design process. The article describes the most popular approaches to the visual presentation of static data structures with the help of graphic images (pie charts, donut charts, vertical and horizontal bar charts), an overview different eye-tracking studies of the effectiveness of visualization is given. Based on the statistical analysis, including cluster analysis of the coordinates of the fixation points of the subjects' eyes, a confirmation of the hypothesis of the existence of various patterns and approaches to the perception of diagrams was obtained. The drawbacks of visualization of information using pie charts were discovered. Certain recommendations for the visualization of static data structures were formulated.