Impedance Characteristics   of Carbon Electrodes for Underground Electrical and Radiophysical Applications

Circuits and Systems for Receiving, Transmitting and Signal Processing

Carbon cords and tapes have a number of important benefits, such as strength, low specific weight, corrosion resistance, including against bacteria and fungi, environmental friendliness and flexibility. We investigated the possibility of using them as grounding electrodes for underground electrical and electronic applications. The magnitude and the frequency dependence of the electrodes impedance in the range of 10 Hz ÷ 10 kHz were compared with those of stainless steel pipes traditionally used for grounding and dipole antennas design.